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A depressive disorder is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts. It affects the way one eats and sleeps, how tired one feels, how much energy one has, whether one still enjoys participating in activities, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. People with a depressive illness cannot merely "pull themselves together" and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years. Appropriate treatment, however, can help most people who suffer from depression.
Depressive disorders come in different forms, just as is the case with other illnesses such as heart disease. This page describes three of the most common types of depressive disorders, major depressive disorder, dysthymia and bipolar disorder. Within these types of depression, there are variations in the number of symptoms, their severity, and persistence.
Major Depression is manifested by a combination of symptoms (see symptom list below) that interfere with the ability to work, study, sleep, eat, and enjoy once pleasurable activities. Such a disabling episode of depression may occur only once but more commonly occurs several times in a lifetime.
Dysthymia is a less severe type of depression which involves long-term, chronic depressive symptoms that are not disabling but keep one from functioning well or from feeling good. Many people with dysthymia may go on to experience major depressive episodes at some time in their lives.
Bipolar Disorder. There is a distinction between bipolar I disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, and bipolar II disorder, which is less severe. Not as prevalent as other forms of depressive disorders, bipolar disorder is characterized by cycling mood changes: severe highs (mania, which is often characterized by irritability, distractibility, sleeplessness or grandiosity - see symptom list below) and lows (depression). Sometimes the mood switches are dramatic and rapid, but most often they are gradual. When in the depressed cycle, an individual can have any or all of the symptoms of a depressive disorder. When in the manic cycle, the individual may be overactive, overly talkative, and have a great deal of energy. Severe mania often affects thinking, judgment, and social behavior in ways that cause serious problems and embarrassment. For example, the individual in a manic phase may feel elated, full of grand schemes that might range from unwise business decisions to romantic sprees. Mania, left untreated, may worsen to a psychotic state.
of Depression and Mania
Not everyone who is depressed or manic experiences every symptom. Some people experience a few symptoms, some many. Severity of symptoms varies with individuals and also varies over time.
· Persistent sad, anxious, or "empty" mood
· Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism
· Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness
· Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed, including sex
· Decreased energy, fatigue, being "slowed down"
· Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions
· Insomnia, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
· Appetite and/or weight loss or overeating and weight gain
· Thoughts of death or suicide; suicide attempts
· Restlessness, irritability
· Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain
· Abnormal or excessive elation
· Unusual irritability
· Decreased need for sleep
· Grandiose notions
· Increased talking
· Racing thoughts
· Increased sexual desire
· Markedly increased energy
· Poor judgment
· Inappropriate social behavior
Some types of depression run in families, suggesting that a biological vulnerability can be inherited. This seems to be particularly apparent in the case of bipolar disorder. Studies of families in which members of each generation develop bipolar disorder found that those with the illness have a somewhat different genetic makeup than those who do not become ill. However, the reverse is not true: Not everybody with the genetic makeup that causes vulnerability to bipolar disorder will have the illness. Apparently additional factors, possibly stresses at home, work, or school, are involved in its onset. In some families major depression also seems to occur generation after generation. However, it can also occur in people who have no family history of depression. Whether inherited or not, major depressive disorder is often associated with changes in brain structures or brain function.
People who have low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism or who are readily overwhelmed by stress, are prone to depression. Whether this represents a psychological predisposition or an early form of the illness is not clear.
In recent years, researchers have shown that physical changes in the body can be accompanied by mental changes as well. Medical illnesses such as stroke, a heart attack, cancer, Parkinson's disease, and hormonal disorders can cause depressive illness, making the sick person apathetic and unwilling to care for his or her physical needs, thus prolonging the recovery period. Also, a serious loss, difficult relationship, financial problem, or any stressful (unwelcome or even desired) change in life patterns can trigger a depressive episode.
Very often, a combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors is involved in the onset of a depressive disorder. Later episodes of illness typically are precipitated by only mild stresses, or none at all. This is why early treatment is very important.
experience depression about twice as often as men. Many hormonal factors
may contribute to the increased rate of depression in women-particularly
such factors as menstrual cycle changes, pregnancy, miscarriage,
postpartum period, pre-menopause, and menopause. Many women also face
additional stresses such as responsibilities both at work and home, single
parenthood, and caring for children and for aging parents.
Many women are also particularly vulnerable after the birth of a baby. The hormonal and physical changes, as well as the added responsibility of a new life, can be factors that lead to postpartum depression in some women. While transient "blues" are common in new mothers, a full-blown depressive episode is not a normal occurrence and requires active intervention. Treatment by a sympathetic therapist and the family's emotional support for the new mother are prime considerations in aiding her to recover her physical and mental well-being and her ability to care for and enjoy the infant.
Although men are less likely to suffer from depression than women, three to four million men in the United States are affected by the illness. Men are less likely to admit to depression, and doctors are less likely to suspect it. The rate of suicide in men is four times that of women, though more women attempt it. In fact, after age 70, the rate of men's suicide rises, reaching a peak after age 85.
can also affect the physical health in men differently from women. A new
study shows that, although depression is associated with an increased risk
of coronary heart disease in both men and women, only men suffer a high
death rate. Men's depression is often masked by alcohol or drugs, or by
the socially acceptable habit of working excessively long hours.
typically shows up in men not as feeling hopeless and helpless, but as
being irritable, angry, and discouraged; hence, depression may be
difficult to recognize as such in men. Even if a man realizes that he is
depressed, he may be less willing than a woman to seek help. Encouragement
and support from concerned family members can make a difference. In the
workplace, employee assistance professionals or worksite mental health
programs can be of assistance in helping men understand and accept
depression as a real illness that needs treatment.
in the Elderly
Some people have the mistaken idea that it is normal for the elderly to feel depressed. On the contrary, the majority of older people feel satisfied with their lives. Sometimes, though, when depression develops, it may be dismissed as a normal part of aging. Depression in the elderly, undiagnosed and untreated, causes needless suffering for the family and for the individual who could otherwise live a fruitful life. When he or she does go to the doctor, the symptoms described are usually physical, for the older person is often reluctant to discuss feelings of hopelessness, sadness, loss of interest in normally pleasurable activities, or extremely prolonged grief after a loss. Recognizing how depressive symptoms in older people are often missed, many health care professionals are learning to identify and treat the underlying depression. They recognize that some symptoms may be side effects of medication the older person is taking for a physical problem, or they may be caused by a co-occurring illness.
If a diagnosis of depression is made, treatment with medication and/or psychotherapy will help the depressed person return to a happier, more fulfilling life. Recent research suggests that brief psychotherapy (talk therapies that help a person with day-to-day relationships or in learning to counter the distorted negative thinking that commonly accompanies depression) is effective in reducing symptoms in short-term depression in older persons who are medically ill. Psychotherapy is also useful in older patients who cannot or will not take medication. Efficacy studies show that late-life depression can be treated with psychotherapy alone.
Improved recognition and treatment of depression in late life will make those years more enjoyable and fulfilling for the depressed elderly person, the family, and caretakers.
Only in the past two decades has depression in children been taken very seriously. The depressed child may pretend to be sick, refuse to go to school, cling to a parent, or worry that the parent may die. Older children may sulk, get into trouble at school, be negative, grouchy, and feel misunderstood. Because normal behaviors vary from one childhood stage to another, it can be difficult to tell whether a child is just going through a temporary "phase" or is suffering from depression. Sometimes the parents become worried about how the child's behavior has changed, or a teacher mentions that "your child doesn't seem to be himself." In such a case, if a visit to the child's pediatrician rules out physical symptoms, the doctor will probably suggest that the child be evaluated, preferably by a mental health professional who specializes in the treatment of children.
Parents should not be afraid to ask questions: What are the therapist's qualifications? What kind of therapy will the child have? Will the family as a whole participate in therapy? Will my child's therapy include an antidepressant? If so, what might the side effects be?
step in getting appropriate treatment for depression is a physical
examination by a physician. Certain medications as well as some medical
conditions such as a viral infection can cause the same symptoms as
depression, and the physician should rule out these possibilities through
examination, interview, and lab tests. If a physical cause for the
depression is ruled out, a psychological evaluation should be done by a
mental health professional such as a psychologist, psychiatric nurse
practitioner, psychiatrist or licensed clinical social worker.
A diagnostic evaluation will include a complete history of symptoms:
when they started, how long they have lasted, how severe they are, whether the patient had them before and, if so, whether the symptoms were treated and what treatment was given. The therapist will ask about alcohol and drug use, and if the patient has thoughts about death or suicide. Furthermore, a history may include questions about whether other family members have had a depressive illness and, if treated, what treatments they may have received and which were effective.
choice will depend on the outcome of the evaluation. There are a variety
of psychotherapies that can be used to treat depressive disorders. Some
people with milder forms may do well with psychotherapy alone. People with
moderate to severe depression most often benefit from psychotherapy
combined with antidepressant therapy.
Some choose medication alone. Most do best with combined treatment
which consists of medication to gain relatively quick symptom relief and
psychotherapy to learn more effective ways to deal with life's problems.
Family and Friends Can Help the Depressed Person
The most important thing anyone can do for the depressed person is to help him or her get an appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This may involve encouraging the individual to stay with treatment until symptoms improve. It may also mean monitoring whether the depressed person is taking the medication as prescribed and offering emotional support. This involves understanding, patience, affection, and encouragement. Engage the depressed person in conversation and listen carefully. Do not disparage feelings expressed, but point out realities and offer hope. Do not ignore remarks about suicide. Report them to the depressed person's therapist. Invite the depressed person for walks, outings, to the movies, and other activities. Be gently insistent if your invitation is refused. Encourage participation in some activities that once gave pleasure, such as hobbies, sports, religious or cultural activities, but do not push the depressed person to undertake too much too soon. The depressed person needs diversion and company, but too many demands can increase feelings of failure. Do not accuse the depressed person of faking illness or of laziness, or expect him or her "to snap out of it." Eventually, with treatment, most people do get better. Keep that in mind, and keep reassuring the depressed person that, with time and help, he or she will feel better.
you want more information about depressive disorders, want to discuss your
particular needs, or want to schedule an appointment, call our offices
We can help suggest the therapist that best meets your needs.
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